# 2 Computers and networks

## LEARNING GOAL

• Know how computers and networks work

## OBJECTIVES

1. Know how computers work
2. Know the role of networks in hospitality
3. Evaluate the strategic role of computers in hospitality

## How computers work

##### General processing

Computers are the main components of the IT infrastructure of every hospitality business. To understand their role and how they facilitate various tasks in the hospitality business, it is important to know how they are designed and work.

For a computer to work, it must have two main components: hardware and software. The hardware and software work together to allow the user to complete tasks. Taken together, the hardware and software specifications of a specific computer are referred to as the computer’s configuration. Because computers can be configured in a variety of ways, it is important to understand how various components that make up the computer influence the performance of a computer.

Since their initial development, computers have gone a long way to help users to complete tasks. The factors that led to the wide spread of computing devices include miniaturization, the development in processing, and the constant development of batteries, displays, networking, and communication technology. However, regardless of the type of computer, they all function in similar ways. The main component of the computer is the processor, or the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU performs computations based on instructions that are provided to it by the user. Such computations can be basic math, comparisons, logic operations, or data storage operations and represent the foundation for all the tasks of the computer. The For this reason, CPU act as the brains of the computer. However, the CPU cannot work in the absence of other hardware (Martindale, 2021). Modern CPUs have multiple cores, which allow the CPU to perform multiple operations simultaneously.

For the CPU to process data, such data must be provided to it in digital or binary code. Binary code is a mathematical convention that represents normal information only by using the numbers “0” and “1”. The transformation of such numbers, letters, and characters into 0s and 1s results in the creation of arrays of characters that represent binary numbers (Dube, 2022). Such binary numbers represent data that are grouped in arrays of 8 data points, or bits. A bit can only take the value of “0” or “1”. Each group of 8 bits is called a byte. Each byte can be converted to decimal numbers by adding the decimal numbers obtained by knowing to the location and value of each bit in the byte.

Computer configurations refer to computer components by using measurements such as bits, bytes, and their multiples. For example, RAM memory is generally expressed in Gigabytes (or GB). Bits are represented by the small letter “b”, while the bytes are represented by the capital letter “B”.

To perform calculations, a CPU processes data that is provided to it. Simply put, when a CPU encounters a data point with that has the value of 1, it will allow electrical current to pass through the CPU. Conversely, when the CPU encounters a data point with a value of 0, it will not allow electrical current to pass through the CPU. Doing this at super high speed, the CPU performs computations. The results of these computations are then reinterpreted to form the output of processing, which will be ultimately converted and displayed to provide meaning to the user. In other words, the computer will provide the results of the calculations in a way that the humans can interpret their meaning.

To recap, the computer takes information in the form of instructions provided by the user, performs computations, and transforms the results of those computations into a format that is meaningful for the user.

## Hardware and software

##### HARDWARE

One of the most important aspects of understanding how computers work is knowing the specific roles of hardware and software. Hardware is generally defined as all the physical electronic components of a computer system (n.a., 2022b). In a typical laptop computer, the hardware includes individual devices such as the motherboard, CPU, memory, various interfaces, power supply, display, camera, microphone, connectivity ports, keyboard, touch surface, etc.

Today’s technology refers to a variety of computing devices, including desktop computers laptops, tablets, and smartphones. While the devices’ appearance could vary, generally, they are structured to have the similar architecture or components. The term computer architecture refers to the way the various computer components interact within a computer (Techopedia, 2017). The following are important components of computers.

Motherboard. The motherboard is the logical (or circuit) board on which all the other components of the computer are placed and slotted. It incorporates links between the various hardware components and facilitates access to the various components for maintenance and repair purposes. The motherboard also organizes the CPU’s computations and connects the various components for operational efficiency (Lacoma, 2022). In most recent years, the design of motherboards has changed, to accommodate faster manufacturing processes and cost reduction. As a result, many contemporary computers, such as the Apple MacBook Pro, have many of their hardware components glued to the motherboard. While this facilitates faster manufacturing and cost efficiencies, it makes it more difficult to repair outside of the maintenance and repair ecosystem of the manufacturer.

Processor (CPU). The processor or CPU is the main component of a computer and performs the main computations of a computer. CPUs perform operations based on a sequence of operations called “cycles”. Such cycles include three main stages: (1) fetching instructions from the RAM memory, (2) decoding the instructions, and (3) executing the instruction (Martindale, 2021).

Generally, the processors are characterized by processor speed, which reflects the number of cycles that are completed per second. For example, a processor with the speed of 3.5 Gigahertz (GHz) performs 3.5 billion cycles per second. Generally, the faster the processor, the faster the entire operating speed of the computer. Therefore, it is common for computers equipped with faster processors to be priced high on the market. There are several well-known tech brands that manufacture processors, including Intel, AMD, and Apple.

Memory. The memory is represented by hardware components that store data and instructions (n.a., 2022a). The memory is divided into smaller cells, and each cell has a unique address (location). There are multiple types of memory in a computer: cache, primary memory (e.g., ROM and RAM), and secondary memory (e.g., hard drives) (n.a., 2022a).

Cache memory: The cache memory is located between the CPU and primary memory and is used to speed up the processor. It contains information that is mostly used by the CPU and is used to optimize the CPU. While this memory is very fast, it is generally low capacity.

Primary memory. This type of memory holds the data and instructions that the CPU is currently using. The primary memory is divided into two categories: ROM (Read Only Memory) and RAM (Random Access Memory).

ROM Memory. The ROM is a type of memory that stores important data and instructions for the computer that allow the computer to power on and work. This type of memory it contains critical information that is necessary for the computer to function, therefore the data and instructions that are written in the ROM memory are designed not to be overwritten (Knerl, 2022).

RAM Memory. This type of memory is also called “volatile” memory, as it is automatically erased when the computer is powered off. The RAM memory allows the information and instructions pertaining to the utilization of currently used software to be stored temporarily there. Because of the role of RAM memory is storing information and instructions pertaining to the software that are currently in use, the RAM memory needs to be sufficiently large to facilitate the utilization of multiple software at the same time without straining the resources of the computer. In other words, if there is not sufficient RAM memory, and the user tries to use too many software applications at the same time, there will not be enough space to store the information and instructions pertaining to these applications, slowing down the computer.

This is why, when purchasing computers, it is important to know at the RAM configuration, to make sure that there is sufficient RAM memory for the types of tasks that are necessary for that particular computer. For example, if a restaurant manager plans to buy a computer to use in their office at the restaurant (assuming that the user will mostly use the computer to run Microsoft Excel, or some other office applications necessary in the management of the restaurant), then 8 GB of RAM memory would be sufficient. However, if a marketing manager for a hotel company is using a computer to design videos for marketing, then they would need a computer with more RAM memory, as generally the software that facilitate video production need more memory to function properly. In that case, a computer with 16 or 32 GB of RAM memory would be recommended.

There is another type of RAM memory that is very important, especially as computer graphics have developed substantially in the past few years. Video-RAM or VRAM memory is very important for users who work with graphics, such as designing videos for training or marketing, handling customer service, or playing high resolution games. In situations like this, VRAM memory of 16 GB or even more is recommended. As seen in the previous examples, RAM memory is measured in Gigabytes (GB).

Network cards (or interfaces). It is difficult to imagine that any of today’s computers are sold without a network card. The network card is a device that allows the computer to be connected to the Internet and communicate with other devices using networks. This can be done using a wired (Ethernet) or wireless connection (Wi-Fi). Wireless cards are becoming the default for most computers, as Wi-Fi connectivity to the Internet is becoming common across the globe.

Input/output devices. To communicate with the user, a computer needs input and output devices. Such devices allow users to interact with the computer. The design of such devices is focused on optimization of the interactions between humans and computers. Therefore, it is likely to see a multitude of technological innovations being deployed in the design of such devices. Input devices include the keyboards, monitors, mice, touch surfaces, microphones, and cameras. They could be located onboard of the computer or could be connected to using cables or other connectivity protocols. Computers also have output devices, which allow users to see or hear computer output.

Displays (screens). The most common output device is the display. A display allows the users to see what the computer does and interact with it directly. The displays are characterized by two main characteristics: size and resolution. The size of the display is very important when considering the type of tasks to be completed. Is it generally measured in inches along the diagonal of the screen. Typical screen sizes are 13 inch for smaller laptops, 15-16 inch for large laptops, and 24-27 inches for desktop screens. It is also common to extend the screen space by connecting two or more monitors. For example, a restaurant manager may like to use a small laptop with a 13 inch screen in their office, dining room, or home, as such a small device is highly portable. In turn, somebody working for the marketing department of a hotel company and using a lot of graphics software may need a large screen (27 inches) or a setup that includes multiple screens. Screen resolution is another factor that is critical in deciding which screen to use. Generally, higher resolution screens include more pixels per square inch. Higher resolutions generally offer a crisper, sharper image with a more vibrant color palette than lower resolutions. It is also important to note that the resolutions can be changed using the software settings of the computer, to facilitate more comfortable use by users who do not have the best eyesight. Display technology has evolved greatly in the past few years, allowing users options to purchase or connect computers with different screen sizes and resolutions, and to purchase screens that permit touch interactions.

Audio/video devices. For the past 20 years, one of the most important additions to a computer has been the possibility of working with multiple media. For this, it is important for computers to be able to handle audio and video signal. Recent developments in miniaturization and processing power for audio and video devices have created opportunities for computer manufacturers to incorporate audio and video features on all of the new computers. For example, it is common for any laptop to have an onboard camera and at least one microphone for sound input. For output, any new computer typically includes at least two speakers in a stereo configuration, and connectors for users to use headsets. For audio input, the computers include onboard microphones. For video input, computers include onboard cameras. While microphones have generally no distinguishable characteristics if they are incorporated on board of computers, video cameras have differed in terms of resolution. A typical resolution would be 1080P for an onboard camera, which provides a good enough resolution to conduct video conferences, etc.

Keyboards, mice or touch surfaces. These are some of the most important hardware because they strongly impact the effectiveness of user interaction with the computer. Keyboards have also evolved also in the past few years, with manufacturers competing to offer the best keyboards. Keyboards are important because they determine the speed and accuracy with which users interact with the computer. Some particular computers brands have become famous for the high quality and durability of their keyboards, such as the IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad laptops. Most contemporary keyboards are backlit, allowing users to work seamlessly in the dark. Touch interfaces are represented by rectangular touch areas located below the keyboard, in addition to left/right click buttons located on the touch area. Some manufacturers have included touch buttons in the middle of the keyboard, including the Dell Latitude and IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad laptop series. The current technology has evolved, and the today’s touch interfaces allow for double tapping and other tactile gestures on the touch surface instead of having dedicated buttons, improving users’ workflow.

Connectors. Because today’s computers allow connectivity with other devices to facilitate completion of multiple tasks, computers generally come equipped with a variety of connectors. The connectors allow the user to connect other hardware or join networks. Physical connectors include serial ports, such as USB (Universal Serial Bus). These ports allow for data to travel between multiple devices, such as external hard drives, flash drives, and other storage devices. In other situations, other hardware will be connected to a main computer using USB and will allow such devices to receive power from the computer. For example, external webcams, keyboards or mice can use be powered through USB. These connectors also allow the computer to be connected to audio/video systems, which are important in situations such as presentations. For many years, many computers have been equipped with USB-A connectors, and only in recent years the standard of manufacturing began moving toward incorporating USB-C connectors (and Thunderbolt connectivity for Apple computers). Computers can also connect through other connectivity standards, such as HDMI, Display Port, S-video, etc. There are differences between the types of connectors in terms of the amount and speed of data transmission through such connectors.

The devices discussed above constitute the main hardware on board of any typical laptop computer. However, it is important to recognize that computers permit connectivity with other hardware, and users can connect a variety of devices to a standalone computer to enhance their interactions and improve workflow. Thus, all of the hardware devices that can be connected to a standalone computer are called peripherals. They are called so because they are located at the periphery (or boundary) of a particular computer system, while being linked with it. For example, if a user connects a printer to a laptop, then the printer is considered a peripheral. If a user connects a standalone keyboard or an external monitor to a computer, the external keyboard and the monitor are considered peripherals. Peripherals are important because they extend the usability of the computer beyond the hardware that was incorporated onboard. For example, a restaurant manager may use their laptop as a laptop with all the technology on board during work hours in a restaurant, but may connect it to an external monitor, keyboard, and mouse at their home to work on reporting.

##### SOFTWARE

Along with hardware, software is perhaps one of the most important concepts in IT. Software represents the instructions or programs that are provided to the computer to tell the computer to complete tasks (IBM, 2022). The past generations of computers made it difficult for users to utilize computers, as the users had to administer those instructions directly to the computer through terminals. This logic has changed since the development of the personal computer in the 1980s and with the development of sophisticated operating system software. Such configurations allow users to use software to tell the computer what to do instead of telling them directly what to do. However, of the large variety of software that exists, they could be divided into three main categories: system software, application software, and programming software.

System software (operating systems)
Operating systems (OS) are software that are quite comprehensive and facilitate the primary utilization of the computer by the user. In other words, they make the computer ready for use. They allow for the hardware to work seamlessly and create rules and protocols that control that the system works within its specifications and according to the rules. They perform functions such as device management, utilities, etc. Examples of OS include Windows (10, 11), Apple OS (e.g., Catalina, Big Sur, Monterrey), Linux, Unix. They all have different ways of interacting with the computer, but in reality they do exactly the same: they make sure that the computer is ready for the user. That is, it is a software that provides a platform for other software to run (Kent, Chevalier, Grance, & Dang, 2006).

Application software (Apps)
In addition to the operating systems, computing devices have various software applications (or apps). An application is designed to facilitate the completion of a specific task. Most software that is not an operating system or a programming software is a software application. Most applications have been designed to complete specific tasks, so it is important to evaluate application software with respect to the tasks they were designed to help the user complete. For example, Microsoft Excel, is an application designed to help the users perform various numerical operations. Microsoft Word is an application designed to allow users to design and edit documents. Adobe Photoshop is a software designed to allow users to edit and manipulate images. Any computer game is an application software designed to allow users to be entertained. There are quite a lot of examples of application software, creating a virtual unlimited space to develop applications pertaining to specific tasks.

Programming software
These are software that are designed to give programmers various tools necessary in the creation of software, such as compilers, text editors, debuggers, etc. (IBM, 2022).

Networking

One of the most important aspects of current computing is the ability to connect multiple computers in a network. The network is a group of two or more computers that are communicating with one another to accomplish tasks together or to allow users to exchange information among these computers. The unprecedented development in computing technology and networking facilitated the development of perhaps the most well-known network, the Internet. The Internet has allowed a variety of computing devices to be connected, and users to exchange information effectively and without error regardless of the distance between them. The benefits of the Internet for the hospitality industry are immense and will be discussed in the chapter dedicated to electronic commerce. However, from a networking point of view, it is important to discuss a few important concepts that facilitate computer networking.

Types of networks

There are multiple types of networks. In the simplest form, two computers can be connected with a cord with each other, forming a basic network. While there is no virtual limit to the number of computers that can be connected to a network, it is important to recognize that groupings of various computers can serve various scopes. For example, a restaurant may have five computers that are connecting the computers in that restaurant. At the same time, those computers could be connected to the Internet. Therefore, it is important to make sure that there is no intrusion into the network.

While there are a few types of networks, the most common types of networks include local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN). A LAN is generally used within a small geographical area, home, or organization, and provides direct access to common resources that are shared among the computers within the network. This configuration allows users to exchange information to share resources that otherwise would be difficult and inefficiently used.

A WAN is a network that incorporates multiple computers in an extended geographical area, allowing them to exchange information, such as text, emails, server access and so on. For example, companies with offices in different countries or states can connect their LANs together in a WAN, to offer users access to the same available resources and facilitate communication. The Internet is viewed as the most comprehensive WAN (BBC, 2022).

For computers to work in a network, a few things are necessary. First, the computers need to have a network card, which allows them to encode information and to set up the communication protocols with the network. Second, the network should be set up for communication. This way, the network does not only include the cords that connect the computers among themselves, but also several hardware devices that facilitate orderly communication within the network, and protect the network from intrusion. Protecting the network from unauthorized intrusion is especially important, as generally, computers in the network have access to protected information, which should not be shared with users outside of the network. However, individuals with bad intentions may try to breach networks. This creates security challenges for the maintenance and organization of such networks.

The networks also must include servers. In contrast to regular computers, which are designed for a user-friendly experience, servers are basically computers that manage network resources. Typically, they are equipped with more extensive storage and memory, and facilitate the exchange of information over networks. There are multiple types servers, which differentiate based on their purpose. A few types of servers that relevant for the hospitality industry are discussed further.

## Servers

Web servers. A web server provides web content to users’ web browsers (Scarfone, Jansen, & Tracy, 2008). Web content is any document that will be displayed on the user’s computer at the request of a user after the document is accessed over a network (typically the Internet). Let’s look at an example. Let’s say that the restaurant has a website and that website resides on a web server. A user may want to access information from that website. To do that, their Internet browser, such as Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, or Google Chrome will access the server and will make a request to the server to display the restaurant’s web page. The server will comply with this request and display the webpage in the user’s web browser. By doing so, the user’s computer, using the web browser, accesses the document on the server and displays it for the user. Because web servers contain web documents, it’s very important that they are always up to date, and especially that they are secure. There have been many situations when web servers have been breached, and as a result, the information on those servers could not be accessed. In those situations, we say that the “server is down”. Web server security is especially important due to the devastating consequences that may result in case protected private information from web servers becomes public.

Email servers. An email server is a server that facilitates the transmission of email documents. It also stores a lot of information pertaining to mail documents.

Database servers. Database servers facilitates database services for network users on web servers. Typically, database servers operate on networks that are dedicated to management, storage, and retrieval of information from databases. Especially in hospitality, as companies engage in multiple transactions, it is common for them to store information pertaining to those transactions. It is very important to protect servers and ensure that servers are completely inaccessible to unauthorized users.

Because of the security challenges associated with these types of servers, and because generally, it is a big financial and IT effort for many hospitality organizations to set up and maintain these kinds of servers, it has been common in the recent years to store business related information not on the local servers but in the cloud. The cloud refers to a virtual location of server resources that are typically outside of a user’s physical location and are accessible using networks (n.a., 2022c). Hospitality businesses can use remote servers located in the cloud, instead of storing information locally. Traditionally, cloud computing used to apply to companies that were powerful, resourceful, and could provide the required maintenance and especially security of the servers. However, the current dynamics of the competitive market in cloud computing have reduced the cost of cloud computing, which is now affordable by less resourceful companies. This is why they represent unimportant alternative to local storage on servers, as the users, such as hospitality organizations, do not have to worry about maintenance, updating, or maintaining the security of such servers. This task is being passed to the cloud company, which will charge the hospitality organization a fee.

##### Networking hardware

There are a few other components that are important for networking. Such components include hardware such as routers, switches, and access points. They are important in routing the signal that connects users’ computers to the Internet or other networks. An important feature of such hardware is transforming electric signal into radio waves that the users can use to connect their devices to networks using Wi-Fi.

A term used extensively in hospitality IT is Wi-Fi signal. Basically, Wi-Fi signal is nothing else but radio waves that any device can use to connect wirelessly to a network. Wi-Fi signal is characterized by strength (how reliable the connection is) and bandwidth (how much data can be exchanged among devices and how fast the exchange takes place). For example, a strong Wi-Fi signal is critical for a user to have a stable and reliable connection to the Internet using Wi-Fi. In contrast, a weak Wi-Fi signal causes frequent disconnections and frustration for users.

Routers and switches allow computers located in a specific area to connect to networks.

An important parameter in networking is bandwidth. It represents the amount of data that can travel simultaneously through a network. Generally, bandwidth is measured and megabits per second (Mbps), and generally the higher the number of Mbps, the faster a device can connect and interact with other devices on the network. Therefore, networks with high bandwidth are highly desired by users, as they facilitate immediate and reliable access to various locations and documents in a network. When discussing bandwidth, it is important to recognize that the bandwidth has two directions in the network. First, download bandwidth refers to the bandwidth of data that is traveling from a server to the user’s device. For example, if a user connects their computer to a movie streaming service such as Netflix, the download bandwidth would be highly relevant. Second, upload bandwidth refers to the bandwidth of data traveling from the user’s computer/device to a server. Thus, for a guest uploading short videos on Instagram, the upload speed would be highly relevant.

## Networking in hotels

Over the past 20 years, hotels have found that offering Internet connectivity to guests is an important benefit. In addition to that, hotels have to be connected to the Internet, to facilitate communication with other brands and manage the business. Therefore, designing reliable networks has been a primary goal for many hoteliers. This logic made hotels spend important resources in designing networks that are secure and reliable enough to allow the hotel staff and guests to have seamless access to the Internet. Offering consumers Internet connectivity in hotel is really important, as they expect that hotels provide good stable and strong Wi-Fi signal. In fact, Wi-Fi connectivity is the number one reason for complaints in hotels.

While hotels vary in terms of layout and size, there are multiple networks within a typical hotel. It is very important that these networks are separated from one another to increase security. In other words, if the network dedicated to the guests is breached, then should be no security threat affecting the staff’s network, as the networks are separated. Typically, hotels have one or more networks being dedicated for guests, one for staff, and one for events. The size and configuration of such networks depends on the size of the hotel and the resources at the disposal of the IT department of the hotel. Full size hotels have a well-established IT department that maintains the networks of the hotel as well as other IT services.

While hotels have provided Internet connectivity for a long time, the development in Wi-Fi and the fact that the devices manufactured today have Wi-Fi connectivity facilitate the wave of transformations in hotel infrastructure. For example, it is common for newer hotels to have an access point in each guestroom instead of one located in the hotel’s hallways, which would serve multiple rooms. An access point is a device that allows users to connect to the Internet. By having an access point in each room, guests would have access to the strongest Wi-Fi signal, therefore reducing the instances where the guests are disconnected from the network.

The management of Internet accessibility in hotels is important from a business point of view. Some hotels offer different tiers of pricing for their Internet connectivity, typically by providing free Wi-Fi access to the members of the loyalty program or providing free Wi-Fi access but only with limited bandwidth in the hotel lobby. Hotels sometimes offer a tiered service, which includes higher bandwidth Wi-Fi access for only specific tiers of the loyalty membership program or in exchange for daily fees.

## Networking in restaurants and cafes

Restaurants and cafes have also provided Internet connectivity to their users. Cafes especially have become important places where consumers know that they can have access to the Internet. They can relax and enjoy various products while surfing the Internet. One of the most important points of attraction of such an establishment is that they can connect their devices to the Internet and spend a lot of time on the property. Therefore, designing a network that allows consumers to use the Internet while on the property is important. However, relative to the hotels, restaurants generally have lower resources and staff dedicated to IT, making it more challenging to design and maintain reliable networks.

Generally, the network configuration of a restaurant or a cafe is not much different from one that is available in a particular residence. A restaurant typically contracts Internet access from an Internet service provider company, from which they receive the service. The restaurant typically uses a modem, followed by a router. A modem is a hardware device that converts signal coming from cable or telephone networks into digital signal, which can be used to connect devices to the Internet. A router is a hardware device that allows multiple devices to connect to the Internet and provides several management and security functions. Depending on the size of the restaurant or the cafe, the router is used to connect directly to the users’ devices, or to multiple access points that are located throughout the restaurant. While there was a time when restaurants or cafes would offer free unsecure Internet connectivity to customers, the development in networking technology and the increase in routers’ ease of use and network management have facilitated the development of secure, password-protected networks in most restaurants and cafes. It is important to recognize this aspect because generally, such small businesses are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, especially as the users tend to spend a lot of time on the network.

## Configuration design

Designing the IT configuration of a company is extremely important for strategic reasons. Well-maintained networks and IT infrastructures allow users to work efficiently and provide guests value from the services that were promised. Conversely, poorly maintained or unsecured networks or IT infrastructures create problems, especially on the long term. These problems are compounded by the general lack of abundant funding for IT infrastructure in the hospitality industry, as it runs with low profit margins. Therefore, strategizing the design and maintenance of the IT infrastructure is critical for hospitality businesses. It is very important for such organizations to create a vision for the IT. What kind of IT would they like to have? What kind of services based on IT would they like to offer to guests? How easy or difficult it is to maintain these networks? These questions are important because many of the services that are promised to consumers will be based on the ability of the IT infrastructure to work properly and communicate with other hotels or networks.

Therefore, it is important for IT organizations to have in mind a few important principles:

1. knowing exactly what tasks are necessary to complete. This allows the businesses to buy hardware and software that are sufficient to accomplish the tasks but without wasting resources. It is important that the managers and IT staff be aware of their own needs, as well as be up to date with the latest developments in the industry.

2. understanding how various technologies would work with one another. Interfacing among devices is critical. Unfortunately, it is still common to find situations in hotels or restaurants where newer technologies are not capable of working reliably with the existing ones. If such situations occur, it is easy for a company to be distracted and lose focus from important business goals.

3. Understanding all aspects of IT deployment and maintenance. Maintenance is critical, especially on long term. It is easy to buy hardware and software, but once that technology is deployed, it must be maintained properly. Therefore, purchasing from companies that offer reliable maintenance contracts and good customer service is important. A lot of companies today can offer the possibility of remote managing the systems, reducing the need for IT staff to travel to the location of the hotel or restaurant and to troubleshoot the issues.

## References

Dube, R. (2022). What Is Binary Code and How Does It Work? lifewire.com. Retrieved from https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-binary-and-how-does-it-work-4692749

Kent, K., Chevalier, S., Grance, T., & Dang, H. (2006). Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response: Recommendations of the National  Institute of Standards and Technology Retrieved from Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8930

Knerl, L. (2022). RAM vs. ROM: What’s the Difference? HP TECH TAKES /… Retrieved from https://www.hp.com/us-en/shop/tech-takes/ram-vs-rom